An Analysis of Selected
Blaan Oral Narratives
Maria Vinice T. Organiza
The Blaans are tribal Filipinos who are among the residents of Little Baguio, Malita, Davao del Sur. Like other tribal groups, they have their own literature expressed in the form of myths, legends, folktales, and others that display their unique culture. To a considerable degree, these reflect the simple activities in their early communities. Their religious beliefs, social relationships, love, friendships, and enmities also determine the expression in many of their unforgettable tales. Their oral narratives, handed down by word of mouth., reveal their values, sentiments, aspirations, and traditions which they highly cherish as a tribe.
However, this rich literary heritage of the Blaan tribe in Malita is in danger of extinction due to rapid modernization and many other external influences brought to bear on the Blaans. Keeping the ethnic literary heritage alive has thus become a challenge. There is a need to preserve the oral narratives before they are completely lost. These oral narratives need to be written down to ensure their preservation as these reveal significant insights and values used to facilitate meaningful learning experiences among children in the classroom.
This study, therefore, not only presents the Blaan oral narratives and draws the values that are found in them, but also presents the educational implications embodied in the collected texts. The researcher believes that the literature of the Blaans brings a message from the past to be used as instrument to the understanding and appreciation of the Blaan culture, particularly that which is found in the province of Davao del Sur.
The Blaans of Little Baguio, Malita, Davao del Sur
Generally, the Blaans inhabit the southern part of South Cotabato and some areas in Saranggani, as well as areas around Buluan Lake in North Cotabato. They are also located in some municipalities of Davao del Sur to include Sulop, Hagonoy, Malita, Malalag, Matanao, Magsaysay, Saranggani Islands, and Jose Abad Santos.
In Malita, the Blaans can be found in the cool highlands of Sara ngay Little Baguio, with its plateaus, valleys, and slightly rolling hills. With a land area of 12,695 hectares and a total population of 7,565 inhabitants, the barangay is named Little Baguio because it is comparable to the summer capital of the Philippines, Baguio City, in terms of temperature and climatic conditions. The Blaan tribe dominates the area, comprising 81.9 percent of its total population, including pure and half-bred Blaans. The Blaans of Little Baguio are distributed in almost all sitios of the barangay. Exclusively Blaan-dominated sitios include Malbag, Kipanan, Kisoy, Pagledong, Lenna, Tafgao, Bolobolo, Centro, Kablulan, Anggas, and Lalon. There are also other tribal groups that live in the area such as the Cebuanos, Manobos, and Tagakaulos.
The Blaans of Malita are industrious people. They work hard in the farms, rice fields, cornfields, and small banana plantations in order to support their families. Their community is peaceful in the sense that they do not get involved in crimes and quarrels in the barangay and in other places. Moreover, these indigenous people are friendly and hospitable. When the researcher conducted her research in the place, the Blaans welcomed her with warmth and cordiality, even offering accommodation. Manifesting tribal pride in their cultural heritage, they readily shared their stories that speak of their distinct identity as an indigenous tribe.
he Blaan language is characterized by the possession of a letter “f,” a rare occurrence in Philippine dialects. Some of the Blaans in this barangay have learned to speak Cebuano because of the presence and influence of Cebuanos in the place. As such, many Blaans are bilingual and use either Blaan or Cebuano in conversation.
The Blaans believe in the Supreme Being, Dwata/God, the creator of the universe. Because of intermarriages, some Blaans in Little Baguio today have become Christians or Muslims. Their religious affiliation varies in every sitio. In sitios Kipanan, Centro, and Anggas, majority of the Blaans are Roman Catholics, while the Blaans living in sitios Kisoy, Lenna, and Bolobolo are mostly Protestants. In sitio Kablulan, the Blaans are affiliated with the Iglesia ni Cristo and Muslim religions.
Chicken and swine are major livestock raised by the Blaans in the barangay. In sitios like Malbag, Centro, Kablulan, and Lalon, the Blaans are the top producers of chicken and swine. Other Blaans raise other livestock and poultry products such as carabao, cattle, horse, duck, and goat. In fact, the Blaans in sitios Kipanan and Lalon have high production of carabaos and horses, respectively.
They also depend on their farm for economic survival. They get meat from their own livestock and poultry products for family consumption. The Blaans are also involved in the production of abaca fiber which, when sold, converts to cash that could be used to buy their other needs in the local market.
Traditionally, domestic life for the Blaan is a loose affair (The B’laan Tribe, 2004). Polygamy among the affluent is quite prevalent. A man can have as many wives as he can afford provided he pays the songgod/ dowry to the father of the girl whom he wishes to marry. A man is not allowed to marry another woman until the first wife has borne him a child. However, polygamy is no longer practiced by the Blaans in Little Baguio. The Blaan man lives with his chosen and legal wife, together with their children. Both husband and wife share equal rights in the family and in the society.
The tribe considers marriage very important to family building. If a Blaan man decides to marry, he has to choose a woman whom he has fallen in love with and propose marriage to her. Dowry is no longer a must from the groom’s side. But a Blaan may opt to give gifts to his in-laws. Marriage rites are celebrated in the church where they are affiliated. Parents and godparents are present to attest to their vows.
Blaans only wear their tribal costumes during special occasions and social gatherings. In these gatherings, both men and women wear abaca cloth for the top and bottom pieces. Within wear blouses heavily decorated with embroidery, beads, and buttons, accompanied by necklaces, anklets, acid numerous tiny bells hanging around their waistline. The men wear jackets that are more ornately decorated than the women’s, complemented by knee length tight-fitting trousers and a long red sash worry around their waist. Nowadays, they wear their Sunday best to attend mass; pants and shirts are worn in performing household chores in the day-to-day.
The Blaans still use some of the traditional musical instruments during their social gatherings. These are the following: kitara (a four-stringed plucked lute), faglong (boat-shaped lute), and sluday/ sloray (polyChordal bamboo tube). In addition, the Blians also use other musical instruments, such as guitar and ukulele in some of their gatherings, meetings, and socialization.
The imposition of national laws and policies has slowly replaced long-standing tribal political structure with the barangay council. In the past, they recognized their datu as the head of the village/community. The administration of laws was vigorously enforced through the influence and presence of local Christian settlers, the church and religious groups, and the national government agencies in the community. Today, the authority of the datu has been diminished owing to the institutionalization of the local government unit and the lack of political space to enact tribal law. In Little Baguio, the barangay captain is the acknowledged leader aided by a Blaan-dominated barangay council. The datu is reduced to the role of a ceremonial leader with little political authority.
Classification of Folk Narratives According to Eugenio
Myths, as defined by Eugenio (1993), are prose narratives which are considered to be truthful accounts of what happened in the remote past. They are accepted in faith, hence, taught to be believed in and can be cited as authority in answer to ignorance, doubt, or disbelief. Myths are embodiments of dogmas; they are usually sacred and are often associated with theology and ritual.
The researcher collected thirty (30) folk narratives from the Blaan tribe in Little Baguio: seven (7) myths, thirteen (13) legends, and ten (10) folktales. Further, the collected myths are classified into four based on the classification of myths by Eugenio (1993), such as: 1. cosmogony and cosmology, 2. establishment of natural order, 3. world calamities, and 4. acquisition of culture.
Cosmogony and Cosmology
“The Beginning of the World,” “The Story about the Stars,” and “Why the Sky is High” fall into the first classification. Cosmogony and cosmology myths deal with the creation of the world and the explanation of the existence of heavenly bodies. “The Story about the Lightning” and “The Story about the Thunder” explain the natural order of the universe. These two narratives explain how lightning and thunder originated.
Likewise, the mythological narrative “The Flood” explains the occurrence of flood in the world. This is classified as myth because this is associated with a ritual, in the sense that every harvest time, the farmers share their blessings not only with God, but also with their neighbors. Such ritual is done in order to produce a bountiful harvest. On the other hand, “The Origin of Fire” is classified under the acquisition of culture. This tale tells about how fire came to the people on earth as a solution to their problem in cooking food.
Legends are folk narratives which account for the origin of something. It is not associated with a dogma or faith but it involves a story that may be about human beings, animals, plants, trees, places, or objects. Some legends are called “mytholegends” for they involve the supernatural and relate to the people’s faith experience while they recount the origin of something. Legends may be true or untrue, yet, they reflect the significant traditions describing the Blaan as a people.
The collected legends are classified according to Eugenio’s (1993, 1996) classification of legends. Most of the legends of the Blaan tribe are etiological mythological legends or the mytholegends. These legends refer to the explanation of the origin of things – “how” things came to be and “why” things are as they are (Eugenio, 1996). “How Creeks are Formed” is a narrative about the origin of a water feature in Little Baguio, Malita. Meanwhile, a legend about land formation is also featured in the tribe’s oral narratives, with “The Origin of the Mountains” as an example.
Moreover, there are also legends about the origin of animals, such as the frog and the bat. “The Origin of the Frog” talks about the transformation of a young man, who did nothing but eat, into a frog. This transformation happened as a form of punishment for the young man’s gluttony and sloth. “The Coward Bat” explains why the bats are nocturnal. The legend is an interesting story about a bat that was rejected both by the birds and the beasts. And so, out of shame he hides during daytime and flies only at night. The motif on transformation is also seen in “The Origin of a Butterfly” wherein the beautiful lady was transformed into a colorful insect. The transformation is not a form of punishment, but rather a transformation for good so that the lady would be with her flowers forever.
There are also pourquoi legends collected from the tribe, these legends that pose a “why” or a great challenge to the imagination. The questions they pose and try to answer give us interesting glimpses into the folk mind, its childlike curiosity and ingenuity in finding explanations for natural phenomena, like the characteristics of plants and animals, and some peculiarities of the human anatomy. “Why the Rice Grains are Small,” “Why there are Fireflies,” “The Monkey and the Owl,” and “The Monkey and the Crocodile” are examples of pourquoi legends. They detail the origin of the existing characteristics of rice grains and fireflies, why monkeys stay in the forest, and how monkeys and crocodiles became enemies.
A legend that presents the characteristics of plants is manifested in “The War of the Plants.” This legend tells why the mais (corn) plant stands straight in the fields, why the camote (sweet potato) must be dug from the ground, and why the ground vine crawls on its stomach.
A legend about a supernatural being, “The Tree-Dwelling Creatures,” explains Why there are still witches nowadays.
In addition, a place name legend reveals how the municipality was named Malita. The place is named after the tribe’s misinterpretation of the native chieftain’s word “Malita,” after the latter called the missionary priest who left his suitcase in the boat. The natives believed that the name of the place was “Malita.”
Folktales are folk narratives which may or may not be true. They are stories which may be tragic or comic, unusual or ordinary, and true-to-life stories where people or animal characters are used. The essence of the story lies in the projection of the people’s tradition and culture which characterize them as a distinct community.
Folktales that are unusual are “The Magic Horn” and “The Wishing Stick.” They are unusual because of the events and the presence of magic in the narratives. Meanwhile, “The Two Monkeys and the Fruits” and “The Little Bird” deal with tragic events when two characters of the said narratives die. “Fye We and the Monkey” and “The Monkey Who Became a Servant” are classified as comic because of the funny events that happened in the story, such as the transformation of the monkey from being foolish to being kind. “The Bundle of Sticks,” “The Gift,” “The Couple,” and “The Fowls and the Bees” present ordinary life situations that highlight unity in the family, life struggles, and the economic value of food for survival.”
“Fye We and the Monkey” and “The Monkey Who Became a Servant” are examples of animal tales, called as such because they show the cleverness of the masters and the stupidity of the monkey. “The Magic Horn,” “The Wishing Stick,” and “The Couple” are classified as marchen or tales of magic precisely because of the presence of magic in the tales. “The Bundle of Sticks” and “The Gift” fall under religious/didactic tales because they show how the goodness of the characters is rewarded. Meanwhile, “The Little Bird” and “The Two Monkeys and the Fruits” are grouped under fables. These are tales containing a moral value applicable to humanity. “The Fowls and the Bees” is an example of a novelistic tale because the people use their intelligence and wit in convincing the fowls and the bees to live with them in the barrio.
Classification of Oral Narratives According to the Blaans
The Blaans have general terms for their folk narratives/stories. They call them ulit as they heard them from their parents and grandparents, and are handed down from one generation to another. Actually, they do not have a specific classification for their ulit. They classify their own ulit according to two categories: 1) truthfulness and 2) sacredness.
Though not all informants declare the truthfulness and sacredness of the narratives, still the majority of them do. They affirmed that the myths are truthful accounts of the past and are considered sacred. Felix Inantay (2004), one of the informants, affirms, “These tales are true and sacred because our beliefs are embodied in them, and they are accepted in faith.”
Truthfulness. Truthfulness or i too kaglot en refers to the state of the narratives being true. Whether or not the events in the narratives actually happened in reality, they are accepted in faith by the tribe. Some of the informants consider the narratives true because they have a moral value.
Truthfulness is based on the remoteness of the narratives, as told by their old folks. Examples of this are “The Story about the Lightning” and “The Story about the Thunder.” Inantay explains, “These tales are remote because they were already told and heard in the remote past, I believe. Our grandparents related these stories to us and they Said that these tales are true; and they also heard these narratives from their grandparents.”
Sacredness. Sacredness or i kagabtas en refers to the tribe’s belief whether or not the characters and events in the narratives are worthy of veneration and reverence. Myths are believed to be sacred on the basis of the character’s worthiness of respect and reverence. In “The Beginning of the World,” the tribe really believes that the universe is created by God, and they consider Him the Supreme Ruler of the universe. Myths such as this are preserved because they project the tribe’s unique culture and highly-prized values, e.g., the values of generosity and sharing which are manifested in “The Flood.”
While it is acknowledged that some narratives are true and sacred, it is worth noting though that most of these narratives have no truthful accounts in the past and are not, therefore, considered true and sacred by the informants. “Why there Are Fireflies,” “The Magic Horn,” and “The Little Bird” are few of the examples. The informants affirmed that some of these narratives are products of the imagination, told only to answer questions and prove a point. “The Monkey and the Owl,” “The Coward Bat,” and “Why the Rice Grains Are Small” are believed to be true, yet these are not sacred. True, because the animals and plants mentioned in the narratives are visible in the area; but not sacred, because of the absence of a ritual and veneration.
Values in the Narratives
There are values which could be extracted from these folk narratives, and these are the following: religious, cultural, human, political, economic, and social values.
“The Story about Lightning,” “The Story about the Thunder,” and “The Beginning of the World” reveal the tribe’s belief that Dwata or God is the Supreme Ruler who made the earth and everything that exists on it. In “The Origin of Fire,” the Blaans view Dwata as the provider of grace, teaching the people how to make fire to cook their food. Similar belief is expressed in the folktales entitled “Fye We and the Monkey,” “The Couple,” “The Little Bird,” “The Monkey Who Became a Servant,” “The Two Monkeys and the Fruits,” “The Fowls and the Bees,” and “The Magic Horn.” These folktales demonstrate the existence and abundance of God’s wonderful creations such as the plants, animals, fruits, among others.
There are also narratives which acknowledge the presence of Dwata manipulating some of the activities of the people. This religious value is revealed in “The Origin of the Mountains” when God intervenes in the affairs of human beings. In this legend, Dwata takes pity and helps the couple escape from the lady’s selfish parents. The Blaans believe that God punishes those people who disobey His will, as made manifest in “The Flood” and “The Origin of the Frog.”
The narrative of the “The Wishing Stick” portrays the tribe’s belief in the supernatural being, such as a fairy, for instance. Melencio is given a wishing stick which he uses to get food and other things he needs. Another dimension of demonstrating the tribe’s belief in the supernatural is magic as portrayed in the “Magic Horn.”
Cultural values are portrayed in the Blaan folk narratives. The tribe’s appreciation of the beauty of nature is revealed in “The Beginning of the World” when God made the universe, and created the rivers, seas, trees, fruits, and animals. This value is also depicted in “The Origin of Butterfly,” a tale of a beautiful maiden who loves her flowers very much as well as in “The Two Monkeys and the Fruits,” a story of a tree covered with ripe fruits.
Rivers are beautiful creations of God mentioned in “How Creeks are Formed,” “The Origin of Coconut,” and “The Monkey and the Crocodile.” Likewise, such cultural value of appreciating nature’s beauty is also portrayed in “The Monkey and the Owl.” This particular legend shows the tribe’s love for the sounds of nature through the hoot of an owl. When the owl hoots, according to the Blaans, the next day would be a good day for planting.
“Why the Sky is High” portrays the hammock as the moon, signifying beauty. The same is true in “The Story about the Stars” wherein the children of Bulan and Adlaw are the stars. The moon and the stars which only shine at night give beauty to the universe.
The tribe’s love for the arts, especially in dancing, is revealed in “The Origin of Coconut.” A couple meets in the dance and soon falls in love with each other.
Love as a human value is portrayed in “The Story about the Stars.” Though Bulan and Adiaw seldom meet, they still have love for each other. This same value is revealed. in “Why there Are Fireflies” and “The Origin of the Mountains,” portraying the great love of a man for a beautiful woman.
This same value is revealed. in “Why there Are Fireflies” and “The Origin of the Mountains,” portraying the great love of a man for a beautiful woman. The values of altruism and helpfulness is found in “Why the Sky Is High.” The tree offers help to an old woman who is bitterly crying under the ascending sky. “The Magic Horn” traces the value of charity to those in need when Masoy, upon passing by a deep dry well, sees and helps an old.woman climb out from it. Generosity and charity underscore “The Wishing Stick” as it portrays Melencio helping and sharing with his neighbors the blessings he gets from the wishing stick.
“The Tree-Dwelling Creatures” also emphasizes the value of concern. This value is portrayed when Maho goes to the forest to get food to sustain the daily needs of his community during a plague. Maho also shows his concern. why his dog keeps on barking ferociously as if at an enemy. He helps his dog in fighting the witch. This value is also reflected in “How Malita Got Its Name” when the native chieftain shows his concern for the priest who has left his suitcase on the boat.
The value of compassion is evident in “The Origin of Fire” when God helps the people find solution to their difficulty in cooking food. In “The Gift,” the value of compassion is shown when the old man gives his gold to the young man after hearing what the latter truly desires.
“Why the Rice Grains Are Small” shows the value of kindness. This legend portrays the result of the woman’s unkindness towards the grains. The grains stop rolling, become small, and remain in the field until harvest Masoy in “The Monkey Who Became a Servant” does not kill the monkey despite the monkey’s cruelty towards him. It also shows the tribe’s value of kindness.
Understanding, unity,. and camaraderie are values which can be discerned from “The Bundle of Sticks” and “The Fowls and the Bees.”
The first tale tells about four quarrelsome brothers. After the father demonstrates to them the importance of appreciating and valuing understanding, unity, and camaraderie using a bundle of sticks, the family has since learned to live harmoniously in their home. Similarly, the latter tale exhibits these cultural values when people look for a solution to their problem of food. If young people were to exhibit kindness to the fowls and bees, they would have enough food forever.
“The Little Bird” strengthens the value of obedience. If baby bird had only followed its mother, it might not have been eaten by big animals. On the other hand, in portraying the value of perseverance, “The Couple” demonstrates that though they experience difficulty, they still have the courage to carry on until they are rewarded with the wife finding the magic seeds.
Forgiveness is another aspect of human value shown in “Fye We and the Monkey” and “The Monkey Who Became a Servant.” In the former tale, two human characters forgive the monkey after it devastated their farms. And in the latter, the monkeys help their masters in tending their farms, thus highlighting the value of gratefulness. “The Monkey and the Crocodile” relates the value of caring. Wanan gives refuge to the baby crocodile until it grows up.
Possession of power underscores the tribe’s political value. “The Monkey and the Owl” openly displays the struggle in wielding power when two creatures argue bitterly as to who among them is the wisest animal in the forest. In the myths “The Story about the Lightning” and “The Story about the Thunder,” God demonstrates his power by exacting punishment from those who disobey His will. “The Flood” recognizes God as giver of abundant blessings and the Supreme Ruler of the universe. In “The Beginning of the World,” God’s power is shown in creation. He decides what creatures to make, provides for His people’s basic needs, as well as mandates them to rule over His creation on earth. He even gives orders to people to strike two stones together to solve their problem in cooking food in “The Origin of Fire.”
In “Why the Sky Is High,” political value is displayed by fulfilling what is promised to authority. The tree instructs the old woman not to spit when she reaches the top of the tree. But the old woman disobeys, and so the sky ascends bringing the hammock with it to heights that the old woman could not reach.
The proper way of dealing with authority is given emphasis in “How Creeks Are Formed.” Almabet, known among his folks and the neighboring tribes to have the power to command anything, orders the sea to roll up to the mountains to change the land formation. Indeed, the Blaans demonstrate through these folk tales that they highly value respect for authority. “Fye We and the Monkey,” “The Little Bird,” and “The Monkey Who Became a Servant” demonstrate this important point. In addition, recognizing a leader is another important aspect associated with how the Blaans deal with authority. In “The Coward Bat,” both beasts and birds engage in the process of selecting a leader for war. Likewise, “The Magic Horn” and “The War of the Plants” show the tribe’s high respect and regard for their leaders, according unto them the authority for decision making, judgment, and resolution of disputes. In the latter tale, the king is asked to decide which among the three plants is the most sought after by the people. It is also the king who metes out punishment to those who disobey his will. A leader gathers the people in the area and negotiates with the fowls and bees for harmonious coexistence with them in the barrio.
The tribe’s political value of respect for the head of the family is emphasized in the narratives. In “The Bundle of Sticks,” the father, as the head of the family, encourages peace to reign in their home. “Why there Are Fireflies” and “The Origin of Coconut” narrate how parents impose rules to determine who would be their daughter’s lover.
This value pertains to livelihood and materials needed for survival. The tribe acknowledges the existence of plants, fish, animals, trees, and water as basic needs of the people for economic survival.
“The Story about the Stars” shows the importance of livelihood in sustaining a family. In this myth, Bulan and Adlaw have to work for the family. Similarly, “The Tree-Dwelling Creatures” emphasizes the importance of hunting deer and wild pig in the forest to sustain the people’s daily needs. Here, the tribe is shown to be dependent on farming that supplies their basic needs. In “Fye We and the Monkey,” “The Couple,” and “The Monkey Who Became a Servant,” the farmers give importance to their farm as their source of living. These narratives showcase how man benefits from productive activities and how these have helped them sustain their day-to-day living. In addition, economic values also refer to material things that meet man’s basic need like food. In “The Fowls and the Bees,” the people in the community ask the fowls and the bees in the other barrio to live with them to give the people meat and eggs. Furthermore, “The Wishing Stick” shows the importance of the wishing stick as a source of abundant blessings.
“The Origin of the Frog” and “The Two Monkeys and the Fruits” talk about one’s satisfaction from hunger. In “The Origin of Coconut,” the coconut that grows in the yard reveals the importance of food as the tribe’s basic need. “Why the Rice Grains Are Small” displays the importance of rice as the staple food of the tribe. The Blaans’ dependence on plants for food is portrayed in the story “The War of the Plants.” Meanwhile, the farmer in “The Monkey and the Owl” uses seeds in planting, emphasizing the economic value of seeds to produce good harvest.
Social value refers to the group’s social activities for common welfare, like feasts, rituals, and family routines. The Blaans highly prize the importance of the family as the basic social unit of society. Family life is also given importance by the tribe. This is manifested in the stories “Why there Are Fireflies,” “Why the Rice Grains Are Small,” and “Origin of Coconut” wherein parent and daughter relationship is very evident. The story “Why the Sky Is High” portrays a mother and son relationship. In “The Magic Horn,” Masoy and the princess are married after the king has granted what he promised to Masoy. “The Couple,” “Why there Are Fireflies,” and “Origin of Coconut” demonstrate household responsibilities by showing a husband/man and wife/woman relationship. They signify the social value that human beings need others in their lives. “The Little Bird” portrays the responsibility of a mother bird to her offspring. In “The Bundle of Sticks,” the father wants his sons to be united together.
The tribe also values the spirit of working together for the common good of the community. These social values find expressions in all the myths of the tribe. “The Beginning of the World” portrays the social relationship between men and women who are made the stewards of the earth. “The Tree-Dwelling Creatures” shows the relationship between the master, Maho, and his dog. The dog goes out with Maho to hunt deer and wild pig in the forest.
“The Origin of Butterfly” shows the tribe’s relationship with nature. This is manifested in the story wherein the main character is the woman who loves her flowers so much. “The Monkey and the Owl” portrays how a farmer believes in his grandfather’s superstition pertaining to the best time in planting seeds.
The value of friendship is featured in the oral narratives. The birds and beast in “The Coward Bat” shows the real essence of friendship when they agree to become friends after their quarrel.
Educational Implications of Values
The folk narratives presented and the values extracted from then have educational implications. The key educational implications are summarized as follows:
1. Folk narratives of the Blaan tribe establish the authority and importance of the elders, spiritual leaders, and baylans as pillars of the tribe. Through them, we are acquainted with the richness of their literature that projects their highly-prized culture and values. Thus, these documented narratives bind the Blaan community together, guaranteeing the continuity and preservation of the tribe and their culture.
2. The collected narratives can be used as teaching materials/tools in the academe. These can be utilized in the teaching of reading, language, and literature. The inclusion of the Blaan folk narratives will deepen or enhance the student’s understanding of the tribe’s culture and traditions. 3. The narratives can serve as tools for historical references. Through learning folk literature, young people can gain a new perspective of Philippine historical past which will enable them to compare it with the present trends of culture and progress. To this end, inclusion of some Blaan folk narratives in English and Literature classes can bring about effective results.
4. The collected narratives can be used as additional materials by the recipients and leaders of the Institute of Indigenous People’s Education in Region XI. These narratives and their values can be shared with the members of other tribes, thus facilitating culture dialogue, awareness, and appreciation of each other’s narratives and values.
5. Awareness and preservation of their folk narratives and values can make the. Blaans appreciate their identity as a people, develop their self-confidence as they are mainstreamed into the dominant society, and imbue them with pride for having contributed to Philippine Literature. 6. The values drawn from the narratives may serve as tools for Values Education teachers for the value formation of the pupils in the primary school and tribal learning center in Barangay Little Baguio and other Blaan communities. The actions of the characters can provide the young with examples that are helpful in deciding what is right and wrong. The analyses of the religious values are helpful in inculcating the minds of the pupils to deepen their faith in God who provides the needs of all peoples. The cultural values are important in understanding the ways of their tribal culture. The discussion on human values may lead to the appreciation of desirable values held by their forefathers. The political values, like respect for authority, direct the tribe in creating a peaceful community. The economic values are very interesting guides to unravel the tribe’s struggle to survive in this world by utilizing material resources on earth. Lastly, the social values are important in providing students a better understanding of social relationships which are displayed through giving importance to the family, the spirit of sharing, and the real essence of friendship.
7. The school, on the other hand, can also clarify those values which can be sustained and those which need to be discarded or qualified. The Blaans’ belief in Dwata/God, their giving importance to family, and respect for authority are but few of the values that need to be emphasized and reinforced to promote the image/identity of the group. And perhaps, the value which need to be assessed, qualified, and purified is the tribe’s belief in supernatural beings.
8. The values in the narratives provide baseline information on the current lifestyles and culture of the Blaans.
9. This study will strengthen the apostolate of Cor Jesu College in the conduct of its extension work. The area of this study is the beneficiary of the school’s BEAM-LIFE (Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao – Lumads Integrated Functional Education), a project that aims to provide the Lumad children with early social and literary skills to prepare and motivate them to enroll in the primary grade school. To this end, a tribal learning center was established in the area. The:existing Department of Education curriculum on Early Childhood Education was improved with the introduction of indigenized learning concepts, materials, and methods. The collected narratives therefore could be additional materials in the accomplishment of BEAM-LIFE’s objectives. 10. Moreover, this study’ will also enhance the cultural . sensitivity fostered by Cor Jesu College on its student and constituent units. Cultural sensitivity means giving respect and appreciation of th, diversity of cultures. With this study, teachers and administrators will hopefully realize that they have to learn new techniques and skills for understanding, motivating, teaching, and empowering each individual student regardless of ethnicity, gender, and religion”. School counselors can serve as catalysts in insuring that teachers, students, and others learn to value ‘diversify. Therefore, valuing, diversity should be taught and should become a major part of any schcOs comprehensive guidance program. Cor Jesu College initiates the community immersion program to expose college students to different localities of Davao del Sur and to enable them to appreciate the diversity of Filipinos cultures. These narratives provide a window to the world as seen through Blaan eyes and reading their may make pre-immersion students better prepared to engage the Blaans in cultural dialogue.
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