Effect of Drying Methods on Percent Yield and Quality of Essential Oil from Pogostemon Heyneanus Benth. (Indian Patchouli)

Abstract / Excerpt:

Essential oils were extracted by steam distillation from the leaves of Pogostemon Heyneanus Benth. [Indian patchouli] dried using three different drying methods, namely, air-drying, oven-drying and sun-drying. The quality and quantity of the oil differed depending on the drying process. The oil yields for the different drying processes were: 0.1620% for oven dried samples, 0.1856% for sun dried samples and 0.2217% for air-dried samples. Physicochemical properties of the extracted oils were determined. Significant differences between drying methods were observed in several properties which include specific gravity, refractive index, ester value, acid value, percent aldehyde and solubility in 90% ethanol. The boiling point of the oil was 180.3 - 182.1°C. The percent aldehyde of the essential oils was monitored through time. There was an increase during the first week with a gradual decrease in the succeeding weeks. Comparison of the essential oils with specific standards set by EOA No. 23, BS 2999/10:1965 ans ISO: 3757:1978 was also conducted. The essential oil extracted from Pogostemon heyneanus Benth. has physicochemical values below the indicated standards of commercially sold parchouli oil.

Full Text

Essential oils were extracted by steam distillation from the leaves of Pogostemon Heyneanus Benth. [Indian patchouli] dried using three different drying methods, namely, air-drying, oven-drying and sun-drying. The quality and quantity of the oil differed depending on the drying process. The oil yields for the different drying processes were: 0.1620% for oven dried samples, 0.1856%  for sun dried samples and 0.2217% for air-dried samples. Physicochemical properties of the extracted oils were determined. Significant differences between drying methods were observed in several properties which include specific gravity, refractive index, ester value, acid value, percent aldehyde and solubility in 90% ethanol. The boiling point of the oil was 180.3 - 182.1°C. The percent aldehyde of the essential oils was monitored through time. There was an increase during the first week with a gradual decrease in the succeeding weeks. Comparison of the essential oils with specific standards set by EOA No. 23, BS 2999/10:1965 ans ISO: 3757:1978 was also conducted. The essential oil extracted from Pogostemon heyneanus Benth. has physicochemical values below the indicated standards of commercially sold parchouli oil.

Introduction
Chemically, essential oils are volatile odoriferous substances composed of complex mixture of organic chemicals, primarily terpenes, derived from different parts of a plant. They are obtained through several methods including distillation, solvent extraction, expression and enfluerage (Belardo 1980 & Tyler et al. 1988).

The Philippines is abundant in naturally occuring oil-producing plant species and in exotic agricultural oil crops (Anzaldo 1988). These plants possess essential oils, which have commercial value. One of these oil-producing plants is patchouli, which grown wild in Baragay Guilon, Peñaplata, Samal Island. Patchouli is a small aromatic shrub from the mint family, which is cultivated in Asia for its sharp, woody-type essential oil (Robbins 1982; Quisumbing 1978). The oil is one of the most important raw materials in the perfumery industry. Producers of the oil have been limited to Indonesia and China mainly because of difficulty in achieving patchouli oil with acceptable physical characteristic (Robbins 1982).

There have been no previous studies done on the patchouli plants found on Samal Island. As a result, production of essential oil must start with a study on suitable drying methods that would achieve the highest percent yield and the best quality of oil from the plant.

Info
Source JournalAgham Mindanaw
Journal VolumeAgham Mindanaw Vol. 1
AuthorsAngela B. delos Santos
Page Count3
Place of PublicationDavao City
Original Publication DateJanuary 1, 2003
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