World Development Report 2011 | Sub-National Violence in Middle and Higher Income Countries


One estimate of the economic cost of the Mindanao conf lict puts it at well over US$ 10 billion (Schiavo - Campo and Judd 2005). President Estrada’s “all out war” in 2000, which led to the capture of the MILF’s main camp, Abu Bhakar, but not to a decisive victory, cost between US$ 500,000 and US$ 2.3 million dai ly (Abinales and Amoroso 2005: 275).

Even though violence has been less severe in Northern Ireland, it has still had a significant economic toll. Violence in Northern Ireland prevented growth in the private sector to the extent that by the 1980s, public sector employment accounted for 42 percent of the total workforce, compared to 27 percent a decade earlier (Patterson 2006; O’Leary and Garry 1993: 329 - 330).

Source InstitutionWorld Bank
Source URL
Page Count31
Place of PublicationPasig City
Original Publication DateJanuary 2, 2012