The Rules of the Intergovernmental Game in East Asia: Decentralization Frameworks and Processes


The Philippines has the strongest history of democratic decentralization in the region. The country’s colonial heritage established limited democratic roots, and a series of presidential decrees enacted under the autocratic Marcos government— including the Local Tax Code, the Real Property Tax Co de, and the Local Fiscal Administration Code— laid the institutional foundation for decentralization. The country reestablished democracy after the fall of Marcos in 1986, and decentralization and local autonomy were among the fundamental principles embodied in the 1987 Constitution. The Aquino administration launched a pilot decentralization project and established autonomous regions in Muslim Mindanao and the Cordilleras. But not until 1991 did constitutional provisions begin to take robust shape through the Local Government Code, which mandated significant devolution to local governments. Today a formal decentralization framework is essentially complete, but much effort re mains to realize full implementation.

Source InstitutionWorld Bank
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Page Count28
Place of PublicationPasig City
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