ARMM is a dummy variable for the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao. It takes a value of one for a province belonging in the ARMM and zero otherwise. The ARMM indicator seeks to capture the different leadership pattern in this area given its distinct historical and cultural background.
Other controls are included in order to test the robustness of the poverty - dynasty relationship. These indicators include a measure of human development (HDI1), education derived from primary and secondary student to teacher ratios ( EDUC 08) , and average per capita income in 200 6 (PCI06). With higher average income, human development and education it is possible that the demand for protection and support from a patron may diminish, and new leaders could arise, leading to a more competitive political environment.
|Source Institution||National Statistical Coordination Board|
|Place of Publication||Mandaluyong City|
|Original Publication Date||October 1, 2013|