Non-climate factors—such as fast-growing environmental deterioration, unsustainable development practices, and population growth and movement—aggravate climate vulnerability in the Philippines. For example, widespread mining and deforestation in Mindanao were blamed for recent flash floods, including those produced by Tropical Storm Sendong in 2011, which cost the lives of about 1,000 people (Iqbal 2011). The neglect of drainage systems and the lack of long-term planning and enforcement exacerbated the floods in 2012, which swamped nearly all of Manila (Macaraig 2012).
|Source Institution||World Bank|
|Place of Publication||Pasig City|
|Original Publication Date||June 1, 2013|