In societies marked by ethnic, political, or religious division – especially where these boundaries coincide with geography and where the government is predominantly controlled by one group (whether majority rule, as in Sri Lanka, or minority, as in Mindanao, Philippines) – those out of power tend to lack access to the formal criminal justice system, be underrepresented among its personnel (police, prosecutors, judges), and/or are discriminated against in its actions and decisions. Different cultural norms, legal procedures, and language barriers within the formal justice system further limit the accessibility to – or desirability of – different social groups and communities. As a result, communities may actively contest the authority of the state to make and enforce law.
|Source Institution||World Bank|
|Place of Publication||Pasig City|
|Original Publication Date|